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考研零基础英语语法 简单句

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作者:因情语写

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    简单句的构成

    一主一谓

    主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语/表语

    主语:名词,代词,doing,to do

    宾语:名词,代词,doing,to do

    表语:形容词,介词短语


    谓语动词

    四种变化:时态语态情态否定

    时态

Birds are flying.

They have finished the work.

     时态

Things are forgotten.

    情态

We can make it.

    否定

I did not enjoy it.

    谓语动词的核心:主要动词(实义动词/系动词

    谓语动词的好帮手:助动词

    助动词:基本助动词情态动词半助动词


    基本助动词

    be/do/have

    have:帮助构成完成时态 have + done

Please put the saucepan away if you have finished with it.

I had finished my homework.

    be:帮助构成进行时态 be + doing

The soldiers were keeping close...

We are having a good time.

    be:帮助构成被动语态 be + done

His father was cheated.

People are shocked at the news.

     do(do/does/did) 帮助构成否定/疑问句

You like it.                             He likes it.                                 You liked it.

You do not like it.                He does not like it.                  You did not like it.

Do you like it?                     Does he like it?                          Did you like it?

     do(do/does/did) 帮助构成强调

You like it.                              He likes it.                                You liked it.

You do like it.                         He does like it.                        You did like it.

 


     情态动词

    表示情态、推测、虚拟

    后接动词原形构成谓语

    没有人称和数的变化

    时态变化很有限(现在时,过去时)


    must:表示“必须”

We must finish the homework on time.

 

Must I finish my homework?

Yes, you must.

No, you needn't/you don't have to.    因为must语气太强,所以否定中一般不用,用时表时禁止,一定不

    must:表示推测“肯定,一定”

You must be the new teacher.

He must wait for us.

He must be waiting for us.

    推测现在:must do/be doing

It must have rained last night.

You must have cried.

     推测过去:must have done


    may/might 表示请求允许“可以吗”

May I open the door?

    may/might 表示允许“可以”

You may come in and have a cup of tea.

    may/might 表示推测“可能”

The play may begin at any moment.

    推测现在 may do / be doing

It may have begun already.

    推测过去 may have done


    can/could 表示能力“能够”

I can cook.

    can/could 表示请求允许“可以吗”

Can I open the door?

Can you help me?

    can/could 表示允许“可以”

You can help me to find my size.

    can/could 表示推测“不可能”

It can't be him.

She couldn't murder her boss.

 


    will/would 表示将来“将要”

I will travel abroad.

They would have a discussion after the accident happened.

    will/would 表示意愿“愿意”

Will you marry me?

    will/would 表示推测


    shall 表示将来“将要”

I shall travel abroad.

We shall travel abroad.

    should 表示义务“应该”

You should obey the rules.

    should 表示推测


    表示情态(情绪态度),每一个情态动词意思不同

    表示虚拟:本要做某事,实际上没做

    should have done

    could have done

    would have done

    might have done

    need have done

I could have helped him, but I was too busy.

You are so rude. You needn't have said that.

 


    半助动词

    半助动词:是因为它们在语法上既有主动词的特征又有助动词的特征。

    半助动词可大体分为三种类型:

    一种是以be 为中心成分,如 be about to, be bound to, be going to, be sure to, be certain to, be(un)likely to, be to;

    另一种是以 have为中心成分,如have to, have got to,had better;

    第三种是以seem/happen/appear/tend等为中心成分,如 seem to, happen to, appear to, tend to,等等。

   上述三种半助动词以下简称为be-型半助动词,have-型半助动词和seem-型半助动词。


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