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考研新题型

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作者:因情语写

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   大纲要求

    B 节(5 小题):主要考查考生对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征以及文章结构的理解。本部分有 3 种备选题型。每次考试从这 3 种备选题型中选择一种进行考查。
    备选题型有:
    1)本部分的内容是一篇总长度为 500~600 词的文章,其中有 5 段空白,文章后有 6~7 段文字。要求考生根据文章内容从这 6~7 段文字中选择能分别放进文章中 5 个空白处的 5 段。七选五
    2)在一篇长度为 500~600 词的文章中,各段落的原有顺序已被打乱。要求考生根据文章的内容和结构将所列段落(7~8 个)重新排序,其中有 2~3 个段落在文章中的位置已经给出。 排序题
    3)在一篇长度约 500 词的文章前或后有 6~7 段文字或 6~7 个概括句或小标题。这些文字或标题分别是对文章中某一部分的概括、阐述或举例。要求考生根据文章内容,从这 6~7 个选项中选出最恰当的 5 段文字或 5 个标题填入文章的空白处。 小标题题

    考查形式分析

    七选五 2012、 2013、 2015
    排序题 2010、 2011、 2014、 2017、 2018、 2019
    小标题题 2016

    七选五

    一、考点分析: 语段特征词 — 体现语段的连贯性和一致性

    1. 逻辑关系词 (能体现上下文逻辑,非句内逻辑);
    2. 代词 (一定是充当指代功能的代词);
    3. 冠词+名词(说明该名词在上文中出现或存在同义词);
    4. 前后句子意思的衔接。

    1. 逻辑关系词 (能体现上下文逻辑,非句内逻辑);

    1)你挺帅的, ___ 我对你没感觉。
    2)我们家有四口人,分别是爸爸、妈妈、 ___ 和我。
    A. 狗狗 B. 壁炉 C. 姐姐 D. 奥特曼
    3)小明和小强有着截然不同的性格,小明性格温和,___, 小强性格暴躁。
    A. 因为 B. 但是 C. 相反 D. 例如

    1)对立关系

    转折: however, but, yet, nevertheless, or
    让步: although, though, even though(尽管), even if, much as=as(虽然、尽管), while,whereas
    其他: against(反对), instead(of)(然而) , rather than(而不是), ignoring(忽略、忽视),on the contrary, by contrast(相反地)

    2)并列关系

    and, as well as, while(而,而且), or(或者), meanwhile(同时), similarly(类似,相似),likewise(同样地), simultaneously(同时地)

    3)因果关系

    a. 表原因的词: because, in that, now that, since, as, for, as a result of, considering, in response to(对...作出反应)
    b. 表结果的词: so that, such that, as a result, lead to, consequently, therefore, hence,thus, so
    注意:原因结果词在一句话中只能出现一个。

    4)总分关系

    for example, for instance, such as, including

    5)递进关系

    still, also, indeed, furthermore(进一步), moreover(而且,此外), highlighting(突出,强调)

    6)时间顺序关系

    as, while, when(当), in the meanwhile, meanwhile (与此同时), at first, finally

    2. 代词 (一定是充当指代功能的代词);

    it, she, he, they, we, such, this, that, these, those

    请辨析
    It is kind to help others.
    It is the educated that have claimed to give up ambition.

    3. 冠词+名词(说明该名词在上文中出现或存在同义词);

    ....development and health. (41) ________ The mistakes have been...

    4. 前后句子意思的衔接。

    [A]To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lines so that you can easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only (one side) of the paper. (2008)

    如果前后意思读不懂,则考虑单词复现。

    1)专有名词
    2)普通名词
    3)动词

    二、做题步骤

    1、读每个选项第一句,划出语段特征词,根据意思推测上文内容或可能复现的词;
    2、根据选项在文中的位置来确定读选项的上一句还是下一句,还是上下句都读;
    3、运用原文内容与选项的意思的连贯性、一致性做出最终判断。

    例 2008

    Para1: The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything else instead of writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, or lie down to write. (41)
    Para2: Be flexible. Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point to the next, but do not permit it to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft. (42) Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.
    Para3: (43) Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will not lose any writing (on the other side.)
    Para4: If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraphs by making just a few simple keyboard commands. Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements in your writing. (44) These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on
revisions.
    Para5: Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that is unrelated to your thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who wrote “The A & P as a State of Mind” wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women. (45)
    Para6: Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times - and then again - working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire versions of the paper. Rewrite. The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic. Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts. Awkward or wordy phrasing or unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and prodded into shape.
    [A]To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lines so that you can easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only (one side) of the paper.
    [B]After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It’s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs
demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.
    [C]It’ s worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid
losing any material because of power failures or other problems.
    [D]It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.
    [E]Although this is an interesting issue, it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the setting influences Sammy’ s decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’ s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A & P “policy” he enforces.
    [F]In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in “A & P”, the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel’ s store policies.
    [G]By using the first draft as a means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested.
    参考答案: DGACE

    排序题

    一、考点分析

    在一篇长度为 500~600 词的文章中,各段落的原有顺序已被打乱。要求考生根据文章的内容和结构将所列段落(7~8 个)重新排序,其中有 2~3 个段落在文章中的位置已经给出。

    Order: G-41-42-43-44-45-F(大纲样题)

    二、做题步骤

    1、每个选项首尾句中找语段特征词,如果全文第一段未确定,则优先确定第一段选项;
    2、根据固定选项首尾句中的语段特征词去确定未固定选项的位置, 注意复现关系;
    3、根据未固定选项首尾句中的语段特征词去确定未固定选项的位置;
    4、当很难确定 AB 两项谁前谁后时,判断 A 尾+B 首和 B 尾+A 首,哪个更合理选哪个。

    例 大纲样题

    A) “ I just don’ t know how to motivate them to do a better job. We’re in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we’ll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It’s hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn’t—it’s boring, routine paperwork, and there isn’t much you can do about it.
    B) “ Finally, I can’t say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it’s not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.
    C) “ I’ ve got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat. They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the
apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.
    D) “ Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that’s not fair—too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.
    E) “ The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.
    F) “ So I just don’t know what to do. I’ve been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work.”
    G) A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation—how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.
    Order: G-41-42-43-44-45-F
    参考答案: CEABD

    小标题题

    一、考点分析

    在一篇长度约 500 词的文章前或后有 6~7 段文字或 6~7 个概括句或小标题。这些文字或标题分别是对文章中某一部分的概括、阐述或举例。要求考生根据文章内容,从这 6~7 个选项中选出最恰当的 5 段文字或 5 个标题填入文章的空白处。

    二、做题步骤

    1. 先通读标题,记住标题对文章进行整体理解。
    2. 做题时不必拘泥于原文的顺序,最好先易后难。具体做的时候关注段首和转折后(转折后优先)。
    3. 作出最终判断时,必须要找到明确的匹配关系。(即同义替换或复现)

    例 大纲样题
    A) What to do as a student?
    B) Various definitions of plagiarism
    C) Ideas should always be sourced
    D) Oversight plagiarism can be forgiven
    E) Plagiarism is equivalent to theft
    F) The consequences of plagiarism
    Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person’s ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one’s ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another.”
    41.______________________________________________________________
    ①The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. ②In many universities, the punishment may range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the university. ③In the literary world, where writers are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws,
the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. ④Protection of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. ⑤Such social pressures and
copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.
    42._________________________________________________________________
    ①Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars’ ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. ②There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students inexactness in identifying sources properly. ③They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.
    43._________________________________________________________________
    ①Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. ②He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with
colleagues. ③He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. ④Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being
severely punished.
    44._________________________________________________________________
    ①Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. ② The techniques for documentation—note-taking, quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography—are easily learned and
can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. ③ Although “there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them,” the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.
    45._________________________________________________________________
    ①The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. ②The writer, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own.③ He not only steals, he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. ④Such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.
    The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.
    参考答案: FADCE

    最后附上10-19年英语一新题型真题及答案

    10-19年英语一新题型真题及答案


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